Citations are the standard method for responsibly acknowledging your sources. Failure to cite your sources properly is dishonest and a form of plagiarism. See our practical advice regarding plagiarism.
Three main styles you will encounter are:
MLA (Modern Language Association) Style
This style is used in most of the classes at UArts. The Modern Language Association is a professional organization serving teachers of English and foreign languages. MLA style is commonly followed in the liberal arts disciplines.
Undergraduate students should use MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers edited by Judy Goulding. 7th edition.
Greenfield Reference 808.02 M699 2009
Music Reference LB2369 .M52 2009
Graduate students should use MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 3rd edition.
Greenfield Reference 808.02 M699 2008
Music Reference LB2369 .M53 2008
American Psychological Association (APA) Style
The citation style used by the American Psychological Association is the preferred style for the social sciences, which include education. If you are a student in any of the education programs (art education, museum education, dance education, music education) at the University of the Arts, you should probably follow APA style in your papers. Ask your instructor if you're not sure of which style to use.
The APA links below are for electronic citations only. For traditional print citations see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Greenfield Reference 808.02 P96 2010
Music Reference LB2369 .P82 2009
Chicago Manual of Style
This style guide is published by the University of Chicago press, and is commonly used in historical journals. You may be required to use this style in art history courses.
Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers
. 16th ed. University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Music Reference LB 2369 .T929 M15 2007
Chicago Manual of Style. 16th edition. University of Chicago Press, 2010.
Greenfield Reference 808.02 Un355c 2010
Music Reference LB 2369 .C45 2010
What is a style manual?
It is a guide that gives rules and examples of usage, punctuation, and typography for scholarly writing. How to cite print or online sources in a paper is one element of a style manual; other kinds of information in a style manual often include the basics of research, proper grammar and syntax, and so on.
UArts students who are taking or have taken First-Year Writing should have a copy of A Writer's Reference by Diana Hacker. This book contains sections on how to cite sources in your bibliography as well as a good section on how to do research. Another book by this author is available in print and electronically:
- Hacker, Diana. Research and Documentation in the Digital Age. Bedford/St. Martin's, 20015.
Greenfield Reference 808.02 H115r 2015
Music Reference LB2369.H23R4 2015
For books you should record
- author (complete name: last, first, middle initial if used)
- chapter title, if you are not referencing the entire book
- place published
You then arrange these elements into the proper format. The example below is MLA style for a list of works cited:
Author last name, first name. Title: Subtitle in Italics. City of publisher: Publisher, year published. Medium of publication.
Peppiatt, Michael. Alberto Giacometti in Postwar Paris. New Haven: Yale University Press, c2001. Print.
For articles you should record
- author of article
- title of article
- title of journal/magazine
- volume and/or number
- date (include month, season, whatever is used)
- page numbers
You then arrange these elements into the proper format. The example below is MLA style:
Author last name, first name. "Title of Article in Quotations." Title of Periodical in Italics. Volume.number (year): page numbers. Medium of publication.
Hochfield, Sylvia, and Simon Hewitt. "Giacometti's Competing Guardians." Art News. 102.10 (2002): 122. Print.
For Websites you should record
- Author's last name, first name
- Title of the short work, in quotation marks, as opposed to full website when appropriate
- Title of the site
- Date of publication or last update
- Sponsor of the site (if not named as the author)
- Date you accessed the source
- The URL is optional, but your professor may want it included
You then arrange these elements into the proper format:
MacDonald, Sara J. "Research Tools and Resources: Style Manuals/Citing Electronic Sources." 29 Oct. 2003. The University of the Arts Libraries. 1 Nov. 2003.
These are just a few examples and are provided in MLA style. Consult your style manual, an online style manual, or a style manual in the library for more information and examples.
Other Style Guides
- Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)
Great site. Be sure to look at the Research and Citation Resources page.
- The Chicago Manual of Style is a classic in the field. Go to The Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.htmland scroll to the bottom for examples of citing electronic sources.