University of the Arts University Libraries

Library Newsletter #8 Spring 2001

Director of University Libraries: Carol H. Graney
Newsletter Editor: Sara J. MacDonald, Greenfield Library Public Services

Current Newsletter Contents
Overheard in the Stacks
Access to Online Periodicals
Research in the Textile Collection
Important New Music Materials
Copyright and Fair Use by Dr. Mark Germer
DVDs in the Libraries
Library Instruction
Archives 'Round the World
Staff Activities
Visit Our Web Site!

Previous newsletters: #7, Fall 2000

"This library has a book on cheese but I can't find what I need!"
Response: First and foremost, if you can't find what you need, please ask a librarian for help. The librarians can show you research techniques and materials you may not know about, plus can save you a lot of time when it comes to research in the libraries as well as research in general. If you can't find something and didn't ask a librarian for help, please don't hesitate to do so.

Second, don't be surprised if you find books in Greenfield that you think are not related to the arts, or books in the Music Library that are not limited to music only. Visual arts students often look for pictures in books and so we have titles such as The Ubiquitous Pig, Extraordinary Chickens, and Alien Empire, a book with fabulous close-up photographs of insects. Most of the books of this sort are received as gifts or are purchased at a very low price. The Ubiquitous Pig, Explore the World of Snakes, and Alien Empire have a combined circulation of 53 checkouts and 24 renewals. As you can see, these books are needed and used quite a lot. Many of our users don't just want books about the arts; they need material about the content of their work as well.

Likewise the Music Library has materials that serve the needs of various University programs and not only the School of Music or School of Theater Arts. Music books on rebetica and flamenco have been used to support fine arts classes; material on rap, folk, blues, and jazz poetry have been requested by writing students; and many compact discs have been added in direct response to the expressed teaching needs of Liberal Arts faculty.

Online versions of the following periodicals to which the Libraries subscribe are accessible through the Libraries' online catalog.

American Art
AMS Newsletter (American Musicological Society)
Brill's Content
Computer Music Journal
Consumer Reports
Convergence: The Journal of Research into New Media Technologies
Dance Teacher
Design Issues
The Drama Review: TDR
Journalism Studies
Leonardo Electronic Almanac
Leonardo Music Journal
The New York Review of Books

Go to and search by Title to find a link to the online version.

The catalog records for these titles include links that will connect you to the online versions of the periodicals. Some of the titles are paid subscriptions available via the UArts campus network only but others can be accessed from any computer connected to the Internet. Please note that although some of the online versions include full-text articles, others only include minimal information such as table of contents lists or brief overviews of the articles. Online access to additional periodical titles will be made available as they become available. All links to online versions of our periodicals will also be available on a page of the Libraries' Web site in the near future.

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During the fall 2000 semester the Textile Collection of the Greenfield Library was the focus of a student assignment. Susie Brandt, who teaches Introduction to Fibers/Mixed Media, asked if she might bring her class in to look through the collection, which is housed on the lower level of the library in the Special Collections Room.

Professor Brandt's students found many interesting samples, some dating back several centuries. In fact, there wasn't enough time in the two and a half hours they spent there to look at everything. The assignment required a pair of students to pick one sample from the collection and do research on the country of origin, century during which it was created, and type of weave.

The most remarkable discovery was finding that the Chinese Imperial Court robe in the collection had indeed belonged to an emperor. Credit goes to graduate student Marci Smoger for the detailed information she found specific to this garment. Every motif embroidered on it has a special meaning: the number of dragons on the robe, for example, reveals the rank of the wearer, and red bats (hidden within the embroidered mountains, waves and clouds) are puns. The Chinese word for bat is fu, a pun on the word for happiness. Rebuses or punning symbols are located throughout the robe, and, once you know what they mean, give life to the robe.

The research resulting from this assignment brought life to a Textile Collection that had remained virtually untouched in recent years. The Libraries greatly appreciate the interest and thank Professor Brandt and all of the students involved.

Mary Louise Castaldi
Reference Librarian

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The turn of the millennium has seemed to galvanize the editors and publishers of music encyclopedias: in addition to the completion of some large projects in the 1990s, the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century brought a monumental new edition of what musicians call MGG (Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Music REF ML100 .M991 1994)) as well as a wholly new--and wholly modern--work of remarkable quality, The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music (Music REF ML100 .G37 1998; each volume accompanied by a CD). Both of these are appearing serially, and are more than half-way towards completion. Most recent of all, the second edition of the central work of reference in all music study, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (Music REF ML100 .N48 2001), hit the shipping docks in January 2001. In 29 volumes, nearly a library in itself, it will prove to be a flawed but thus far unsurpassed document of human knowledge about music-making in all ages and places. All three works await your acquaintance in the Music Library.

Dr. Mark Germer
Music Librarian

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The previous installment of this column drew attention to the timeliness of copyright discussions in the news, and focused on defining, in the simplest terms, what copyright is (and is not). Before moving to some basic commentary on fair use, let me summarize those remarks.

Technology, especially of the digital sort, has so much emerged into people's lives of late that the balance of interests in intellectual property now commonly raises questions in all manner of our workplaces, even our households. U.S. Circuit and other courts hear more often than before cases involving individuals, rather than organizations, newly capable of reproducing vast amounts of information from large numbers of source locations. Though copyright has in the past concerned the public consequences of public acts, the new capabilities occasion examination of private behaviors, notably actions that desktop computers and cyberspace permit to be taken at a distance and with little effort. Conceivably, individuals could affect whole markets or industries. Never simple, intellectual property law is becoming more complicated than ever. Expect more seemingly arcane controversies to surface in general news coverage.

Also a reminder of the basic context: copyright is a legal right, inherent in certain property, and itself a form of property, one that can be bought and sold. An original handwritten item, say, and the copyright in that item are separate units of property. No formality of registration is needed. The right inheres in a work that is fixed in a medium of expression whether it is registered or not. Copyright is not a reward or acknowledgement of creative accomplishment, nor does its guarantee have anything to do with ideas, but rather only with the form in which the ideas are expressed. In the U.S., copyright is historically and modestly conceived as a means to support an environment conducive to continued creative effort (which has the potential to benefit everyone). Like a patent, it is a practical measure granting to the owner (limited) monopoly on reproduction and dissemination.

There are a great many provisions in national and international copyright law (Great Britain's 1988 statute has 306 sections and 8 schedules), having to do with licenses, assignments, durations, restrictions, infringements and remedies, auxiliary rights, regulating tribunals, and collecting agencies. Exceptions and defenses, while occupying the same space, constitute overall a small portion of the totality of legal clarification. What is often called "fair use" in discussions of U.S. law, and "fair dealing" in British law, exists uppermost in the minds of the public without a corresponding voluminousness in the actual codes. (External, "non-official" accretions are, of course, another story. Furthermore, the oft-encountered phrase "doctrine of fair use" is not encountered in the Codečthere is no "doctrine".) This is the crux of the problem in assessing the fairness of infringement in noncommercial library and other settings in institutions of learning. But exemptions for educational purposes do exist.

There are in the copyright law of various countries privileges or exceptions allowing "private" use, though the digital context described above has exacerbated the degree to which these may be regarded as controversial and in need of review. U.S. law effectively folds "private" use into its "fair use" provision, and thus creates still more opportunity for confusion. The remarks here refer only to the U.S. copyright law, Title 17 of the Code, Sections 107 (1976, effective 1978, amended 1990 and 1992) and 109 (1984), which includes some language on sound recordings and computer software. (See -- but note this site is for reference and does not qualify as a primary resource for research.) It is envisioned there that fair use is transformative, that is, necessary to critique or other acts of creative transformation of the protected work, and that it must in addition satisfactorily meet conditions of a four-factors "test" in determining Note that the considerations to be made are not in themselves described as rights to which the public is entitled; rather, they seemed structured as defenses against possible charges of infringement. But they also appear intentionally to be worded to allow for a range of interpretive judgement. Leaving aside the difficult questions of "private" usečeven though current developments may not permit us to leave them aside much longerčthis is where libraries have had to come in and stake out solutions. In general, libraries routinely interpret fair use as enabling reproduction of materials they own for some preservation and security purposes, and distribution of (limited) copies to their community for purposes of private study, scholarship, classroom or tutorial teaching, and performance of (non-dramatic) works as a function of instruction. (Performances of dramatic works are governed separately.) Each of these exceptions must adhere to specific conditions and limitations, such as posting and notification of copyright protection, the documentation of commercial availability, the "reasonable" attempt to secure permissions, or statement of intent concerning recovery and destruction of provisional reproductions.

Policies of the UArts University Libraries addressing the reproduction and dissemination of copyrighted materials as part of day-to-day library functions take advantage of the built-in flexibility of fair use. They also take cognizance of the four factors as defensive guidelines that have no proven status as affirmative rights. To discuss relevant reserve and collections policies, please speak to one of the librarians. The University Libraries also collect materials and maintain Web links on intellectual property and copyright law as it pertains to the arts and arts education.

Dr. Mark Germer
Music Librarian

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Do you know the libraries are collecting DVDs? As of this writing there are 83 DVDs in the Greenfield Library and 47 in the Music Library. Like videos, DVDs can be checked out by students and staff overnight and by faculty for up to 5 days. DVDs may also be viewed on DVD players in either library.

Why did we go to DVD? They take up much less storage room; they won't break as easily as videotapes; the quality of sound and image is superior; and faculty can queue up a particular scene for a class.

Greenfield DVD titles include Taxi Driver, Chihuly over Venice, Diabolique, Landmarks of Early Film, Nosferatu, Reservoir Dogs, Run Lola Run, and Blade Runner. Music Library DVDs include Topsy-Turvy, Cabaret, A Great Day in Harlem, Carousel, Pirates of Penzance, and the Ken Burns series, Jazz (Music DVD 35).

Films on video or DVD are cataloged just as books are. To find a particular film in the library catalog you may look up it up by title, or select AUTHOR to search for a director, choreographer or actor.

To find all DVDs held by Greenfield or Music or just to browse, choose Call Number Search from the catalog's main menu, then Other Call Number, and then search by MD for Music Library DVDs or GD for Greenfield Library DVDs. You can use the same search concept to look for videos: search by MV for Music Library videos and GV for Greenfield videos.

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During the fall 2000 semester the librarians provided library and research instruction to 25 classes, reaching a total of 380 students. Mark Germer, Mary Louise Castaldi, and Sara MacDonald are ready and waiting to come to your class and help your students become better, more confident researchers and users of information. Every library is different, and students benefit greatly from instruction as simple as a physical tour of the library to a more advanced session on Boolean logic and how to search databases and the Internet.

The University Archives recently received two international requests for research assistance.

From England: Kerry Purcell, a researcher from London, called in regard to the University's small file of Alexey Brodovitch materials that were donated at the time of a 1972 exhibition, Alexey Brodovitch and His Influence. A catalog was published by Philadelphia College of Art (now the College of Art and Design) in 1972; Sid Sachs dug through past gallery catalogs and we were able to send one gratis to our friend London along with numerous photocopies of other materials. Purcell is writing a book on Brodovitch which he expects to be published by Phaidon in 2002. Brodovitch was a very influential graphic designer who served on the faculty of the Pennsylvania Museum School of Industrial Art, as the College of Art and Design was then known, from 1931-1937.

From France: Paul Franklin, a Paris-based art historian and co-editor of the French academic journal Étant Donné Marcel Duchamp, a publication devoted to Franco-American scholarship on Duchamp, contacted us by e-mail to inquire about archival materials related to a symposium at the Philadelphia Museum College of Art held on the evening of March 20, 1961, during which Marcel Duchamp read a short text title "Where Do We Go From Here?" If any faculty recall this event or have photographs, please contact Sara MacDonald at 215-717-6282 or

Mark Germer attended the
Music Library Association (MLA) conference in New York City in February where he: completed a term as chair of MLA's Publication Awards Committee; began a term as Chair of the MLA Committee on Resource Sharing and Collection Development, which organized a panel of sound recording industry executives in New York to discuss the present state and future direction of the industry; was commissioned by the President of the MLA to collect and evaluate data from the membership and recommend to the Board a course of action for MLA participation in an aggregated music metasite operation on the Web. He reviewed Musik in Bibliotheken: Materialen, Sammlungstypen, musikbibliothekarische Praxis [Music in libraries: materials, collection typologies, general music library practice] by Kurt Dorfmüller and Markus Müller-Benedict (Wiesbaden 1997), in Notes 55 (1999) and has just been commissioned to review for Notes the new, 29-volume edition of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Mary Louise Castaldi was awarded the first travel award given by the Art Libraries Society of North America (ARLIS/NA) Delaware Valley Chapter. Mary Louise attended the ARLIS/NA conference in Los Angeles at the end of March and will chair the Art and Design Libraries Division of ARLIS/NA for the next year. Carol Graney and Sara MacDonald attended the Association of College and Research Libraries conference in Denver in March. Much of the conference focused on information literacy and technology in academic libraries. Scott Hanscom went to Washington DC in January for the American Library Association Mid-Winter Conference. Lars Halle has accepted a position as team leader for music for the Pennsylvania Governor's School For the Arts (PGSA) and will be responsible for auditioning all the music applicants and also for the selection of the attendees. Lars will return for his seventh consecutive summer as a faculty member there in 2001.

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If you haven't done so lately, we urge you to explore the University Libraries Web site and give us some feedback. We want to make it useful and interesting for our community, particularly the Research Tools and Resources section. Let us know what you think!

In addition to information about the libraries, our Web pages include a number of subscription research tools such as Art Museum Image Consortium (AMICO), Books in Print, International Index to Performing Arts, and WilsonWeb, which includes Art Index and a large general periodical index called OmniFile. These research tools can be accessed from anywhere on the UArts campus network. Please take advantage of these, whether from in your office or a computer lab. If you would like your students to use these materials for research please contact one of the librarians for an introductory class.

Thank you for visiting the newsletter! Please send remarks or suggestions to Sara MacDonald, Public Services Librarian.

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